Ansible provides an Open Source tool for provisioning, configuring and orchestrating changes on systems that is fundamentally much simpler and more flexible than older tools such Puppet and Chef. This makes it suitable for a very wide range of requirements, from setting up a few workstations to deploying applications and updates across hundreds or thousands of servers.
How Ansible Works
Unlike most other products in this area, Ansible does not require a central service or use dedicated agents on each system. Instead, you only install Ansible and your configuration on a control machine, which can just be the workstation of an administrator. Each time that you perform an operation with Ansible, it connects to the required systems and streams code to a standard run-time that is already installed on the target. The managed systems are referred to as nodes.
Most Ansible modules connect to the target systems with SSH and run Python 2, both of which are installed on most Linux systems, and are part of macOS. There are also modules to execute actions with more basic methods, such as the Bash shell that is the default for both macOS and GNU/Linux distributions. The Ansible modules for managing Microsoft Windows systems send commands to PowerShell, using the PowerShell remoting facility. This means that you can manage almost any system with Ansible, possibly starting with low-level modules, and using them to install the prerequisites for the more complex operations.
If you do need a central service for coordinating changes or maintaining detailed inventories of systems, Red Hat offer Ansible Tower, but this product is not needed for any of the features of Ansible itself.
Setting Up A macOS Control Machine
To set up Ansible on a macOS workstation using Homebrew enter these commands in a terminal window:
brew update && brew install ansible
Ansible modules from extras may require additional Python packages. If you need to install more Python packages, use pip. To install pip, enter this command in a terminal window:
sudo easy_install pip
Install Python modules into your home directory, rather than globally. If you use pip, add the –user option. For example, this command installs the passlib module into your home directory:
pip install --user passlib
Creating A Repository
You should always store your Ansible configuration in version control. Git is effectively the standard version control tool, and works perfectly for this purpose.
For convenience, I would put the Ansible playbooks in the root of your repository, along with a copy of ansible.cfg, the configuration file.
Use the Vault feature to encrypt any YAML file that stores password variables.
An Example Ansible Configuration File
This is a simple ansible.cfg file:
[defaults] # SSH settings remote_user = ansibler remote_port = 1234 pipelining = True
Replace ansibler with the name of a user account that has administrative privileges on the target systems (this means sudo for UNIX-based systems). Replace 1234 with the port number of the SSH service on the target systems.
The pipelining option significantly increases the performance of Ansible over SSH. Unfortunately, it means that commands that require root access will fail if sudo has the requiretty option enabled.
Source Control Exclusions
If you are using Git, create a .gitignore file, otherwise define exclusions however is appropriate for your version control system (for example, a .hgignore file for Mercurial).
I would recommend that you always exclude the ansible.cfg file from version control, and put an example configuration file in the repository instead. This allows each administrator that works with the repository to use their own configuration file.
The Repository Directory Structure
Create the following directories within the repository:
- examples/ - Various other templates and examples
- filter_plugins/ - Custom filter plugins
- host_vars/ - Variables for individual host systems
- inventory/ - Lists of host systems
- group_vars/ - Variables for groups of systems
- library/ - Custom Ansible modules
- roles/ - Custom roles used by the Ansible playbooks
- scripts/ - Utility scripts
The examples/ and scripts/ directories are useful for storing your own work, but are not essential. These directories are not used by Ansible itself.
Ansible provides three main commands:
- ansible-playbook - to execute all of an Ansible playbook on the specified systems
- ansible - to execute an individual shell command or Ansible module on the specified systems
- ansible-vault - to encrypt or decrypt any individual YAML file that Ansible uses.
Both ansible-playbook and ansible require you to specify the group of systems that the commands will run on, and use -i to specify the inventory, which is the file or directory that lists the specified systems. The all group is a built-in group that automatically includes all of the systems in the specified inventory.
COMMAND GROUP -i INVENTORY OPTIONS
Each utility will connect to each of the nodes in the group and execute the required commands. If a command fails on one or more of the nodes, a retry file is created to enable you to run the commands again on only the failed nodes.
Use the ansible command with the -a option to execute a shell command:
ansible all -i inventory -a /usr/bin/uptime
Use -m to execute an Ansible module:
ansible all -i inventory -m ping ansible all -i inventory -m setup
The ping module checks that Ansible can connect to the remote system. The setup module returns information about the remote system.
To run a playbook:
ansible-playbook -K -i inventory my_playbook.yml
The -K option means that Ansible will prompt you for the password of your account on the remote system in order to use sudo.
Add –syntax-check to test the Ansible playbook without running it:
ansible-playbook --syntax-check -K -i inventory my_playbook.yml
Add –check to simulate the effect without making changes to the target systems:
ansible-playbook --check -K -i inventory my_playbook.yml
If the playbook requires data from a file that has been encrypted with ansible-vault, add –ask-vault-pass:
ansible-playbook --ask-vault-pass -K -i inventory my_playbook.yml
Enter the password for the encrypted files when prompted.
Using Ansible to Manage Microsoft Windows Systems
Ansible 2.1 and above support managing Windows systems. This means that they may communicate with Windows nodes using the WinRM and PowerShell Remoting facilities that are built-in to current versions of Windows, and also include specific modules for Windows features.
Each Windows node must meet these requirements to be managed with Ansible:
- PowerShell 3.0 or above must be installed
- PowerShell Remoting with WinRM must be enabled
- The firewall must allow remote TCP connections to port 5986 (WinRM over HTTPS)
The Ansible documentation on Windows includes a PowerShell script to set up remote access for you.
A Note on Generating Passwords
You must specify the SHA512 hashed version of a user password when you set it through Ansible. By default, macOS does not generate the same hashes as Linux, so you should install the Python module passlib to provide a hash generator that behaves consistently across operating systems. To generate a valid hash with passlib enter this command in a terminal window:
python -c "from passlib.hash import sha512_crypt; import getpass; print sha512_crypt.encrypt(getpass.getpass())"
Enter the password that you would like to use at the prompt.
Any YAML file that stores password variables should be encrypted using the Vault feature of Ansible.